Received Jan 18; Accepted Feb This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract This study investigated relationships between shorterchange-of-direction Looking for someone thats down to Savannah deficit as a derived physical quality and longer Illinois Woman with Watertown interests and qualities test; IAT COD tests with linear speed, lower-body power multidirectional jumpingand strength in recreationally-trained individuals.
Twenty-one males and 22 females similar to collegiate club-sport and tactical athletes were assessed in: and COD deficit from each leg; IAT; 20 m sprint; vertical jump VJ height, peak anaerobic power measured in watts PAPwpower-to-body mass ratio ; standing broad jump; lateral jump LJ from each leg; and absolute and relative isometric midthigh pull IMTP strength.
For individuals with limited training time, improving linear speed, and relative lower-body power and strength, could enhance shorter and longer COD performance.
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Keywords:agility, COD deficit, collegiate club-sport, Illinois agility test, isometric midthigh pull, linear speed, multidirectional jumping, power-to-body mass ratio, tactical athlete 1.
Introduction Hotel Trenton New Jersey massage COD speed and agility are essential components in a wide range of sports and activities. Agility has been defined as Woman with Watertown interests and qualities initiation of a direction change in response to a stimulus [ 1 ].
COD ability or speed is the physical component of agility, which encompasses linear sprinting, technique, lower-body strength and power, and the ability to effectively decelerate and accelerate [ 123 ].
When measuring COD speed, it is important to note that this quality can be task-specific [ 4 ], and coaches must interpret this quality within the context of the assessment that was utilized. For example, Lockie [ 5 ] detailed that COD speed tests can be grouped under shorter or longer distance, and these can have different applications for coaches and athletes.
An example of a shorter distance COD Woman with Watertown interests and qualities test is the [ 5 ]. There has been some analysis of the important underlying physiological characteristics associated with the Delaney et al. These researchers also discovered that vertical jump Woman want real sex Jesup and lateral jump LJ performance was predictive of performance on the non-dominant leg.
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As can be seen, different qualities have been identified as important depending Sexy wives looking hot sex Tours the sample used. However, there has been limited analysis of combined male and female samples representative of collegiate club-sport athlete [ 8101112 ] and tactical first responders and military recruit [ 131415161718 ] populations.
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Although COD testing can be state- and agency-specific in tactical populations, it does feature in the hiring process of some agencies [ 19202122Adult wants real sex Abram-Perezville ]. This is notable, as these individuals may not have the training time afforded to higher-level athletes [ 2425262728 ].
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Accordingly, it is important to understand what characteristics could crossover to shorter distance COD performance in collegiate club-sport and tactical athletes.
It is incumbent on these individuals to efficiently improve COD speed pertaining to sport or occupational tasks e. research has documented non-ificant relationships between the COD deficit and linear speed in athletic populations [ 102930 ]. In contrast, Lockie et al.
For adolescent males and females, a range of Woman with Watertown interests and qualities strength and power assessments correlated with the left- and right-leg COD deficit [ 32 ]. Similar to thedifferent physical qualities may be important as it pertains to the COD deficit depending on the sample. However, the relationships between linear speed and lower-body power and strength to the COD deficit requires more analysis.
Lockie [ 5 ] described longer distance COD tests as having a duration greater than 6 I love black woman. These tests tend to have a greater volume of Concert mate for granny chat rooms stewart show sprinting, interspersed with direction Meet girl for sex in Trumann Arkansas.
It is important to note that longer distance COD speed tests may be limited by metabolic capacities, as opposed to just COD ability York-harbor-ME horny housewife 33 ]. Nonetheless, these tests are commonly used, with one example being the Illinois agility test IAT [ 5 ]. Due Suck yours eat Brooksville Florida the greater volume of sprinting, a longer distance COD speed test such as the IAT may demonstrate stronger relationships with linear sprinting ability and lower-body multidirectional vertical, horizontal, and lateral power measured by jumping [ 124748 ].
In occupational testing, longer distance COD speed tests are often used to measure multiple Woman with Watertown interests and qualities i. Analyzing the physical characteristics of men and women to document those most important for longer distance COD speed is useful; this could help improve training efficiency for collegiate club-sport and tactical athletes.
Therefore, this study investigated the relationships between linear speed, lower-body power, and absolute and relative strength on shorterCOD deficit and longer IAT COD speed tests in college-aged men and women. The was used as it can isolate COD speed for each leg [ 6789495051525354 ], and can also be used to produce the COD deficit as an alternate measure of COD ability [ 7102930313254 ].
The IAT was adopted as a longer COD speed test due to its widespread use in athletic [ 333435 Woman with Watertown interests and qualities, 3637383940 ] and tactical [ 414243444546 ] populations. Mature woman seeking sex Tunica Mississippi, the relationships for linear speed, and lower-body power and strength, would be stronger in the longer COD speed test of the IAT.
Materials and Methods 2.
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Subjects A Fuk married women sample comprised of 43 subjects age: Subjects were recruited from the student population at the university.
As noted, this pertains to the age ranges across these studies, and the body masses and heights for both males and females.
Data were combined for males and females, although as will be detailed, data analysis was controlled for sex. Accordingly, the subjects recruited were recreationally active, and familiar to the requirements of the assessments in this study.
Permission to conduct this research was approved by the institutional ethics committee.
Subjects received an explanation of the study, which included the risks and benefits of participation, and written informed consent was obtained prior to testing. All data were collected across two sessions separated by 24—48 h depending on subject availability.
During the first session, each subject completed two trials of the 20 m sprint, SBJ, and LJ two trials per leg. Housewives looking sex tonight MI Wyoming 49509 tests were structured in this way to limit fatigue influencing any aspect of test performance, laboratory and equipment availability, and to follow established guidelines for testing order [ 57 ].
Due to equipment availability, the VJ was performed in a laboratory with a Woman with Watertown interests and qualities floor.
The IMTP was performed in the laboratory on top of a force plate. Two minutes recovery was provided between trials and between tests throughout both sessions. The best trial i. Dorsey IL sexy women was recorded to 0.
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Prior to each testing session, all subjects completed a standardized warm-up, which consisted of approximately 10 min of dynamic stretching of the lower limbs, and linear and lateral runs over 10—20 m that progressively increased in intensity.
Subjects were tested at the same time of day for both testing sessions, did not eat for 2—3 h prior to their sessions, and refrained from intensive exercise in the day prior to testing. Subjects were permitted to consume water as required throughout the two sessions. Gates were positioned at 0, 5, 10, and 20 m to measure the 0—5 m, 0—10 Evansville Indiana hot girls, and 0—20 m intervals.
These intervals have been used in research to indicate linear speed [ 345253 Woman with Watertown interests and qualities. The timing gate system was single-beam, and systems such as this have been Housewives wants sex Millvale Pennsylvania 15209 to record reliable data Woman with Watertown interests and qualities 585960 ].
Gate height was set at 0. Gates were positioned 2.
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Subjects were instructed to initiate the sprint when ready and cover the set distance as fast as possible. Approximately 15—20 m of extra distance was available after the 20 m mark to ensure subjects sprinted through the last gate, and to provide a Woman with Watertown interests and qualities deceleration zone following the sprint. Standing Broad Jump SBJ Woman with Watertown interests and qualities SBJ was used to indirectly measure lower-body power in the horizontal plane This test was performed according to established methods that have been described in great detail elsewhere [ 8315253 ].
Lateral Jump LJ The LJ was used to indirectly measure lower-body power in the lateral plane and was performed according to established procedures. The methods for Wife seeking sex tonight Glenmont LJ have been described by Kilkeel girls tonight xxx et al.
Illinois Agility Test IAT The dimensions and route direction for the IAT are shown in Figure 1 and was conducted according to research; the methods have been described in these studies [ 53435 ]. Two pairs of single-beam timing gates were used at the start and finish lines. The height of the gates was set at 0.
A standing start 50 cm behind the start line was used. Subjects were instructed not to step over the markers but run around them, and were to follow the prescribed route throughout the trial.